Have you heard somebody call a sauce ‘broken’? Are you wondering what they mean by this; is it a good or bad thing? Well, here is what you need to know.
So, what does it mean when a sauce breaks? A sauce is considered broken when it has curdled, become lumpy, or has started to separate. Essentially, the emulsification is no longer in place. It is something that will need to be fixed, if possible, to ensure the sauce has the right texture and consistency.
Ultimately, a broken sauce is not a good thing.
It means that something has gone wrong, somewhere.
And there are actually several different potential causes; as we shall soon explore.
- 1 What Is A Broken Sauce?
- 2 Why Do Sauces Break?
- 3 How Do You Fix A Broken Sauce?
- 4 How To Stop A Sauce From Breaking
- 5 Finally
What Is A Broken Sauce?
A broken sauce is one where the starch, fat, and liquid molecules have separated. This would have been closely kept together via emulsification.
First and foremost, it’s important to note that breaking only occurs in sauces with fat.
So, sauces like Hollandaise, Alfredo; those kinds of sauces where high-fat dairy products, cheeses, or eggs, are used.
Instead of being thick and creamy, you get grainy, lumpy bits and an inconsistent texture.
And it’s what those fat particles are subjected to that causes all the issues, as we shall see below.
Why Do Sauces Break?
The most common reasons sauces break are because the sauce was heated at too high a temperature, or it was kept over heat for too long.
Let us now explore each reason in a little more detail
The Fat Was Added Too Quickly
If you add your fat ingredient (cheese, milk, egg, etc) too fast, the emulsifying agent cannot form the bridge between the fat and the liquid.
Sauce Is Cooked On Too High A Heat
At high temperatures, the ingredients will begin to coagulate and lose their ability to hold the emulsion together.
In egg-based sauces like Hollandaise, the eggs will literally scramble.
In flour-based sauces like Bechamel, the starch molecules will not be able to thicken.
In milk or cheese-based sauces, you’ll notice globs of fat floating around in the liquid.
Ingredients Added Too Soon
For some sauces, you may find that adding ingredients too early causes them to curdle.
For instance, cheese sauces can go grainy if the cheese was added too quickly. It should be added at the end, just before serving.
Warmed For Too Long
Sauces should be gently warmed and then served; as soon as possible.
The longer a sauce sits on heat, the more likely it is to become unstable.
This is why it is actually advised to let the sauce cool to room temperature, before gently reheating if you do need to use it later.
Sauce Was Refrigerated
Many sauces separate when they get too cold too.
The fat literally hardens under cooler temperatures which break the emulsion.
How Do You Fix A Broken Sauce?
How you fix a broken sauce will depend on the type of sauce it is and the ingredients used.
Nevertheless, there are some useful approaches that can help restore a broken sauce.
Add More Liquid
The first involved adding a little bit more liquid.
This is best used when you begin to notice signs of breaking or fat droplets floating while the sauce is still in the pan.
Add more base liquid (water, stock, broth, vinegar) and whisk continuously until your sauce thickens again.
Introduce More Fat
Most emulsified sauces should have a 1:1 ratio of liquid to fat.
So, if you notice your sauce is too watery or thin, consider adding in some more butter, egg yolk or two, or even cheese (at the end). Whisk or fold in accordingly.
Typically a lot of whisking can help bring a sauce back together.
Drop the temperature, and use a whisk to stir the sauce up and help to re-emulsify it.
Working with a proper whisk like this one from Amazon will make your life a hell of a lot easier!
If you don’t like the idea of manually whisking or if you have a blender/food processor to hand, add your sauce and blitz it.
That works in very much the same way as whisking, but is generally much easier!
How To Stop A Sauce From Breaking
Prevention is better than cure. That is why implementing some best practices will ensure your sauce is not liable to break, to begin with.
Add Fat Slowly
Fat should be introduced to the sauce slowly, one teaspoon at a time – particularly at the beginning.
Once the sauce starts to thicken, you can typically add a little more fat at one time.
But if you are working with a cheese sauce, be sure to add the cheese at the end.
Otherwise in the context of an Alfredo, for instance, it will split!
Slow, Gentle Heat
Work over low, gentle heat.
A drastic rise or fluctuation in temperature is usually enough to cause an emulsion to break, and your sauce to separate.
Any dairy-based sauce should never be brought to a boil!
Add A Thickener
It may alter the taste and texture a little but a thickener such as cornstarch or flour can provide stability and give you the emulsion you desire.
If your sauce includes acidic ingredients, such as wine or vinegar, you will want to ensure it is properly reduced before adding your fat source, or dairy.
As it sounds, a broken sauce is one that has broken.
Or in other words, it has come apart.
It is no longer a sauce with a smooth, balanced consistency.
It is grainy and lumpy.
Not, what you want.
Thankfully, there are some quick and simple fixes to rescue a curdled sauce and some simple strategies you can employ to prevent it from happening altogether.
So just don’t let it happen to you!